At the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM ) Congress in February, 2011, Ann Shankar from Biodye India, a company that produces natural dyes based on wild plants, made a provocative suggestion – that the term “organic textile” is not an accurate description of any textile where synthetic dyes and auxiliaries are used. The Global Organic Textile Standard allows the use of synthetic dyestuffs ( which are made from unsustainable sources and are not biodegradable). She suggests that a separate category for such textiles be called “organic fibers with responsible synthetic dyes”. According to Ann, even if it takes another couple of years for anyone to be able to claim a fully organic supply chain that would warrant the name ‘organic textile’ it should exist as a goal. Until then, natural dyes and auxiliaries (definitions by GOTS) should be given a separate standard such as ‘Organic fibers with natural dyes’ – a term separate but equal with the label for synthetic dyes.
She said that her company has recently overcome the technical difficulties often associated with using natural dyestuffs, especially at an industrial level. Biodye is not the only company which produces dyestuffs from organic material which can be used for manufacturing; Rubia Natural Colors also has developed dyes in the red range from madder.
One of the major problems with synthetic dyestuffs is the pollution problems they present coupled with our “end of pipe” solutions. Pointing out the impracticality of this end of pipe scenario, she points to two examples:
- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in India categorizes process waste sludge from synthetic dye production as hazardous, yet has no norms for proper disposal. The result is that solid waste is stacked in any available space, on riverbanks and roadsides, where it leaches back into the water or soil.
- Water is a critical concern, since the dye process uses so much water. In 2006, over 6.9 million acres of agricultural land in 68 villages in India was destroyed (meaning no crops could grow on the land) by water from the Noyyal River, which had long been the recipient of untreated textile mill effluent. The water pollution was so bad that the Madras High Court ordered the dyeing and bleaching facilities which used the river to pay fines to both the government as well as to local farmers, who had lost their livelihood. They also instituted a “zero discharge” requirement for all dyeing units. However, in January 2011, the Madras High Court again forced the closure of all dyeing units in the area when it was found that pollution levels were above allowable limits. Despite a grant from the government to build treatment facilities, the General Secretary of the Tirapur Dyes & Chemicals Association, said “At present we do not have any technology for zero discharge.”
The use of natural dyes means that there is no pollution to dispose of, and it also increases the green cover for plants and animals. She uses as an example the differences between synthetic indigo and natural indigo:
- Made from petrochemicals.
- Impurities include toxic aniline and N-methylaniline residues.
- Not biodegradable – incineration is the only recommended means of disposal.
- Toxic to daphnids and algae.
- Small creatures do not live around the rims of fermentation vats containing synthetic indigo, nor can a frog survive a dip in the vat.
- Called “nature identical” by chemists.
- Dye is made in the leaves of the plant Indigofera.
- Impurities include plant polymers and soil particles
- Biodegradable. If natural indigo ceases to be added to a natural fermentation vat, it loses its power to dye within 75 days. A sour vat will consume the indigo within 15 days.
- Small insects and creepy crawlies live around the rims of natural fermentation vats containing natural indigo, and frogs can hop in and out without harm
Biodye uses no toxic mordants and treats its waste water so sludge is available as fertilizer and water can be used as irrigation.