Indulgent yet responsible fabrics

Can you wash or otherwise clean conventional fabrics to remove all the toxic residues so that you’d end up with  a fabric that’s as safe as  an organic fabric?  It seems a reasonable question, and sure would be an easy fix if the answer was yes, wouldn’t it?  But let’s explore this question, because it’s really interesting.

Let’s start by looking at one common type of fabric: a lightweight, 4 ounce cotton printed quilting fabric.  In this case the answer is no (and as you’ll find out, our answers will always be no, but read on to see why).

The toxic chemicals in conventionally produced (versus “organically” produced)  cotton fabric that cannot be washed out come from both:

1.      the pesticides and herbicides applied to the crops when growing the cotton and

2.      from the dyes and printing inks and other chemicals used to turn the fibers into fabric.

Let’s first look at the pesticides used during growing of the fiber.

Conventional cotton cultivation uses copious amounts of chemical inputs.  These pesticides are absorbed by the leaves and the roots of the plants. Most pesticides applied to plants have a half life of less than 4 days before degredation.(1)   So pesticides can be found in the plants, but over time the chemicals are degraded so the amount to be found in any bale of cotton fiber is highly depending on time of harvest and how recently the crop had been sprayed.  

Gas chromatography easily shows that  common pesticides used on cotton crops are found in the fibers, such as:  Hexachlorobenzene,  Aldrin, Dieldrin, DDT and DDT. (2)   Look up the toxicity profiles  of those chemicals if you want encouragement to keep even tiny amounts of them out of your house.   With time, as the cotton fibers degrade, these residual chemicals are released.

We could find no studies which looked at the fibers themselves to see if pesticides could be removed by washing, but we did find a study of laundering pesticide-soiled clothing to see if the pesticide could be removed.  Remember, this study (and others like it) was done only on protective clothing worn by workers who are applying the pesticides – so the pesticides are on the outside of the fibers  –   NOT on the fibers themselves during growth.  The study found that, after six washings in a home washing machine, the percent of pesticide remaining in a textile substrate (cotton)  ranged from 1% to 42%.  (3)

If you’re trying to avoid pesticides which are applied to cotton crops, you’d do better to avoid cottonseed oil than the fiber (if processed conventionally) because we eat more of the cotton crop than we wear.  Most of the damage done by the use of pesticides is to our environment – our groundwater and soils.

Before we go further,  let’s do away with the notion that organic cotton, woven conventionally, is safe to use.  Not so.  There are so many chemicals used during the processing phase of fabric production, including detergents, brighteners, bleaches, softeners, and many others that the final fabric is a chemical smorgasbord, and is by weight at least 10% synthetic chemicals (4), many of which have been proven to cause harm to humans.

The chemicals used in conventionally processed organic cotton fabrics make the concerns about  pesticides used in growing the crop pale in comparison:  If we use the new lower chemical inputs that GMO cotton has introduced, it’s now possible to produce 1 lb. of conventionally grown cotton, using just  2.85 oz of chemical pesticides – that’s down from over 4.5 oz used during the 1990’s – a 58% decrease.   So to produce enough cotton fiber to make 25 lbs of cloth,  it would require  just 4.45 lbs of chemical pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides.  Processing that fiber into cloth, however, requires between 2.5 – 25 lbs. of chemicals.  If we take the midpoint, that’s 12.5 lbs of processing chemicals – almost three times what it took to produce the fiber!

There are over 2,000 different kinds of chemicals regularly used in textile production, many of them so toxic that they’re outlawed in other products.  And this toxic bath is used on both organic fibers as well as non-organic fibers – the fibers are just the first step in the weaving and finishing of a fabric. (Make sure you buy organic fibers that are also organically processed  or you do not have an organic fabric.   An organic fabric is one that is  third party certified  to the Global Organic Textile Standard. )      Fabrics – even those made with  organic fibers like organic cotton IF they are conventionally produced and not produced according to GOTS –  contain chemicals such as formaldehyde, azo dyes, dioxin, and heavy metals.  Some of the chemicals  are there as residues from the production, others are added to give certain characteristics to the fabrics such as color, softness, crispness, wrinkle resistance, etc.    And these chemicals are designed to do a job, and do it well. They are designed to NOT wash out.  The dyes, for instance, are called “fiber reactive” dyes because they chemically bind with the fiber molecules in order to remain color fast.   The chemical components of your fabric dye is there as long as the color is there. Many dyes contain a whole host of toxic chemicals.  The heavy metals are common components of fabric dyes.  They are part of the dye and part of the fabric fiber as long as the color remains.

And these chemicals are found in the fabrics we live with.  Studies have shown that the chemicals are available to our bodies:  dioxins (such as the 75 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and 135 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) were found in new clothing in concentrations ranging from low pg/g to high 300 ng/g in several studies. (5)


How do these chemicals get into our bodies from the textiles?  Your skin is the largest organ of your body, and it’s highly permeable.  So skin absorption is one route; another is through inhalation of the chemicals (if they are the type that evaporate – and if they do evaporate, each chemical has a different rate of evaporation, from minutes or hours to weeks or years) and a third route:  Think of microscopic particles of fabric that abrade each time we use a towel, sit on a sofa, put on our clothes.  These microscopic particles fly into the air and then we breathe them in or ingest them.  Or they  fall into the dust of our homes, where people and pets, especially crawling children and pets, continue to breathe or ingest them.

In the United States, often the standards for exposure to these toxins is limited to  workplace standards (based on limits in water or air) or they’re product specific: the FDA sets a maximum limit of cadmium in bottled water to be 0.005 mg/L for example.  So that leaves lots of avenues for continued contamination!

The bad news is that existing legislation on chemicals fails to prohibit the use of hazardous chemicals in consumer products -–and the textile industry, in particular, has no organized voice to advocate for change.  It’s a complex, highly fragmented industry, and it’s up to consumers to demand companies change their policies.  In the United States we’re waking up to the dangers of industrial chemicals, but rather than banning a certain chemical in ALL products, the United States is taking a piece meal approach:  for example,  certain azo dyes (like Red 2G) are prohibited in foods – but only in foods, not fabrics.  But just because the product is not meant to be eaten doesn’t mean we’re not absorbing that Red 2G.  Phthalates are outlawed in California and Washington state in children’s toys – but not in their clothing or bedding.  A Greenpeace study of a Walt Disney PVC Winne the Pooh raincoat found that it contained an astounding 320,000 mg/kg of total phthalates in the coat – or 32% of the weight of the raincoat! (6)

Concerns continue to mount about the safety of textiles and apparel products used by U.S. consumers.  As reports of potential health threats continue to come to light, “we are quite concerned about potentially toxic materials that U.S. consumers are exposed to everyday in textiles and apparel available in this country,” said David Brookstein, Sc.D., dean of the School of Engineering and Textile and director of Philadelphia University’s Institute for Textile and Apparel Product Safety (ITAPS).

The good news is that there are fabrics that have been produced without resorting to these hazardous chemicals.  Look for GOTS!  Demand safe fabrics!

(1)  “Degradation of Pesiticides on Plant Surfaces amd It’s prediction – a case study of tea leaves”, Zongmao, C and Haibin, W., Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang, China.   http://www.springerlink.com/content/vg5w5467743r5p41/

(2) “Extraction of Residual Chlorinated Pesticides from Cotton Matrix, El-Nagar, Schantz et.al, Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and management,  Vol 4, Issue 2, Fall 2004

(3)  Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1992  (23, 85-90)

(4) Laucasse and Baumann,  Textile Chemicals: Environmental Data and Facts, Springer, New York, 2004, page 609.

(5) “Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Persistent Organic Pollutants in Textiles” Krizanec, B and Le marechal, Al, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, SI-2000, Maribor, Slovenia, 2006; hrcak.srce.hr/file/6721

(6)   http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/greece/137368/toxic-childrensware-by-disney.pdf

17 thoughts on “How to get rid of chemicals in fabrics. (Hint: trick question.)

  1. Harmony says:

    Once again you blow me away with your level of detail and commitment to getting the truth told. Thank you!

  2. Beate says:

    Thank you so much for this article! I wholeheartedly agree that choosing textiles made from organic fibers are only the first step to ensuring that the fabric is non toxic. I know that the GOTS ensures that no toxic substances are used in the production process. What do you think about OEKO-Tex? It goes a different route by certifying that there are no residues of toxic substances above a certain limit (that is deemed to be safe). Do you think this standard ensures that the fabric is non-toxic to the consumer though? Even if there were toxic substances used in the manufacturing process? Would you recommend it as an alternative if people cannot afford GOTS certified clothing?

    There was a thesis done by Matthias Kuhn in 2002 that researched pesticides residues in textiles. http://www.chemie.uni-hamburg.de/bibliothek/2002/DissertationMatthiasKuhn.pdf. Unfortunately, the paper is in German but there is a summary in English.

    1. oecotextiles says:

      Hi Beate: Thanks so much for the website for Matthias Kuhn’s thesis – we’ll be sure to take a look. As for recommending choices: we’re happy if people take any step in greening their choices! It’s unfortunate that the high prices keep some people away. But there is no perfect green product, so by pointing out the best step I hope it doesn’t dissuade people from taking any step at all! We all have so many demands on our time and money. If people would just be thoughtful about their choices I’d be happy. In terms of Oeko Tex being safe – they were one of the first and I think they’re still among the best. One of the major differences between Oeko Tex and GOTS is that Oeko Tex does not require that all fibers used be organic – which is why bamboo viscose can be certified by Oeko Tex (as there is almost no organic bamboo available). We think that bamboo viscose, if produced in a closed loop system at a facility that treats its wastewater, could be a good addition to the set of sustainable fabrics. The Oeko Tex Standard 100 ensures that a fabric is tested to make sure that their list of about 2000 chemicals is either not used or residues are within allowable thresholds. The difference between Standard 100 and GOTS is that GOTS addresses a broader spectrum of issues, such as water treatment requirements and addresses workers rights issues. However the new Oeko Tex Plus100 certification addresses those issues too.

  3. HI, I would like to print your article in our support group newsletter, can you let me know if that’s ok? MCS-Aware is a small charity supporting people with Environmental Illness: http://www.mcs-aware.org
    Many thanks,
    Nicki, Editor MCS-Aware Magazine

    1. Yes, please do use our articles as much as you like. We’re hoping to spread information and if it can help people with EI we’re all for it!

  4. obviously like your web-site but you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts.
    Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I in finding
    it very bothersome to inform the truth on the other hand I’ll definitely come again again.

    1. So sorry – I’m always in a hurry and trying to put together a cogent blog, but I’ll try to pay more attention to my typing. Leigh Anne

    2. Hilda says:

      Senior Skin Care, you should take a close look at your spelling and grammar before criticizing others.

  5. Thank you for such an informative article – very interesting.

  6. ChemicalAllergies says:


    Actually, you CAN remove textile chemical additives from clothes. The method? Add regular table salt to the wash (don’t use detergent also). I’ve tried it and it works, the more the better I find – and I’m extremely sensitive to chemical additives. The ones that will come out are the ones added for anti-weathering and anti-wrinkling purposes. Try it and see it if works for you.

    1. Thanks for your comment. Do you lose all the color in the fabric when you wash it? It’s nice to know that you benefit from washing, which might remove some kind of resin coating.

    2. It helps with some things, but is by no means a solution for all the chemicals. I’ve used it as a helpful part of a series of steps. But I wouldn’t use it in the machine (or very often) as salt is corrosive.

  7. Emi says:

    Thanks for this article. Yet when you say that GMO forms of producing cotton use less pesticides you may be pointing people to feel safe in washing their new clothing to more easily removing any and all residue from the fabric. How about the residue that is permanently locked into each cell? Pesticides are attached permanently in the DNA, so It will off gass forever.

  8. I just started researching this topic and it’s mesmermizing, mind-boggling and overwhelming. Thank you so much for your detailed report. It’s a lot to think about.

  9. Sarah Dalros says:

    Thank you for writing this! It’s hard to find many GOTS choices for my baby, but this encourages me to keep hunting.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: